Small changes can reduce stress


Living through a global pandemic has been an immense change for all of us and we’ve been going through particularly stressful times for the last while. While there is little that we can do about many of the things worrying us, what we are able to do is control how we react to the stress in our lives.

Learning how to deal with stress will help you in your academic pursuits, your career and your personal life. In this article, we’ll look at the dangers of long-term stress and offer some practical tips to reduce stress.

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What is stress

Stress is the body’s physical reaction to perceived danger. When you’re in danger, your body goes into “fight, flight or freeze” mode, pumping your body with adrenaline and other hormones to rapidly increase focus, memory and reaction time.

This is good for running away from danger or confronting a dangerous situation, but it becomes less useful when the threat is emotional or mental. Too much stress can leave us tired and lacking in enthusiasm and motivation.

We often refer to different types of stress, identifying them by their sources, such as work stress or emotional stress. Medically speaking, however, there are two main types of stress, acute and chronic.

Acute stress is when we experience a stressful situation, but it passes. A bit of stress can help us with things like meeting deadlines but it becomes problematic when the stress is repeated or continues.

Chronic stress is when we feel ongoing stress for a longer period of time. This could be due to things like pressure at work, relationship conflict, money troubles or any other ongoing cause of worry and concern. Without properly managing and reducing this stress, it can lead to physical and mental health problems.

 

Symptoms of stress

These are some of the common symptoms you might experience if you are suffering from chronic stress:

  • Memory and concentration problems
  • Insomnia
  • Physical aches and pains
  • Fatigue
  • Feeling paralysed
  • Feeling emotionally drained

 

Ongoing stress can also lead to anxiety and depression, which each have their own symptoms.

 

How to reduce stress

The University of the Witwatersrand’s Counselling and Career Development Unit (CCDU) have put together some useful resources on coping with stress and how to manage stress, which we will share at the end of this article.

Here are tips for dealing with stress as provided by Wits CCDU, both for day-to-day living and for dealing with exams and assessments:

Plan ahead

While exams or assessments are stressful, they are also predictable. You will always know well ahead of time when you will be tested and you can plan ahead to manage your exam stress. By doing so, you’ll avoid that last-minute panic and the risk of having to “cram” your studies, and instead, be able to approach your writing date better rested and calm. For more detailed tips on planning your time, view this infographic Stress Busters: The academic challenge

 

Keep up-to-date and informed:

Before you begin, ensure you have all your notes and the correct materials required for the exam or assessment. This is easier with online learning than with traditional contact classes, as all your material is neatly provided, but still check carefully what will be in the assessment so that you know which areas to focus on.

 

Create a plan:

Once you’ve worked out what material you need to cover, draw up a schedule that you will be able to stick to or adjust if need be. Carefully consider the volume of work to be revised and allow yourself enough time in your plan to get through everything. Set specific and achievable goals in your plan. For example: “I will revise the work I’ve done for five minutes at the end of every study session” is a better goal than “I will do more revision”.

 

Connect with others

This is especially true when you are studying online. Humans are social creatures and too much isolation is not good for us, resulting in elevated stress levels. Having a supportive network of friends and family will make it easier for you when dealing with exams and other life stresses. For more on the importance of connection, you can download or view this CCDU guide: Stress Busters: Staying connected.

 

Avoid too much social media

This is a danger to avoid that is a little riskier with online learning. Social media does indeed allow us to keep connected with others over long distances, but it also creates a false impression on the lives people are leading. This can leave one feeling miserable that your own life does not seem to compare. It can also consume large amounts of your time and worsen procrastination if you are not careful.

 

Lifestyle

During exam time, it’s particularly important to lead a balanced lifestyle to offset the effects of stress. Ensure that you eat well, get enough sleep and have regular exercise. We wrote previously on the importance of staying connected for your mental health and taking care of your physical health. You can also view this CCDU infographic: Stress Busters: Positive living.

 

Exercise

Exercise helps to counteract the negative effects of stress hormones, and also boosts your mood. In a previous article, we gave several suggestions for how to easily work a regular home workout into your daily routine. As a Wits student, you can make use of the Wits gyms and join any one of the many sports clubs.

 

Relaxation

Take the time to fit in some relaxation when you can. There are many relaxation exercises or breathing exercises such as mediation that will help you relax and combat the effects of stress. Spending some time in nature helps greatly with relaxation, making a nature walk an ideal way to get exercise while relaxing at the same time. You can view the CCDU’s tips on this infographic: Stress Busters: Doing stress simply.

 

Eat a healthy diet

Eating more nutritious food helps your body cope better with the effects of stress. It can be tempting to turn to junk food when you are feeling under pressure, but try to stick to healthier choices such as fruit or nuts when snacking “on the go”. For more on a healthy diet, take a look at the healthy foods to improve the focus section of our previous health article.

 

Rest and take breaks

Getting enough rest helps your body to combat the effects of stress. Make time to have some downtime and try to get to bed early enough to get your seven to eight hours of sleep before you have to get up again in the morning. Also remember to take regular breaks while you are studying to allow you to return feeling better refreshed and more able to absorb information.

 

Change how you think about the situation

This tip takes from stoic philosophy, which entails the concept that while we can’t always change a situation, we do have control over how we react to it.

Sometimes it’s helpful to change how you view the situation if you are not able to change the situation itself. For example, you can see exams (which you cannot change) as a way to really engage with your field, and reaffirm the end result (getting your degree) – rather than just a horrible time to get through.

 

Fidgets and other stress toys

The popularity of fidget toys or fidgets boomed in recent years, with many new toys entering the market. These include stress balls, fidget spinners that users rotate between their fingers, fidget cubes offering six different sensory controls and pop it fidget toys to replicate the soothing sensation of popping bubble wrap. These offer a short term respite from feelings of stress and can help some people, but there is far stronger evidence that a good diet and regular exercise will alleviate stress.

 

Wits support structures

The Wits CCDU team has compiled many useful guides for students on stress management and exam preparation.

 

If you feel that you are struggling to cope with your stress and are suffering from anxiety, please make use of the various counselling services offered to you as a student.

How to deal with conflict and change


One of the only constants in life is change. As we grow older, we tend to find change more and more disruptive. However, to coin another cliche, life is a journey and to make the most of it will involve many changes over the years.

COVID-19 brought massive change since early 2020 and we are still grappling with those changes, with many now working remotely. In this article, we will talk about the challenge of change at work and how to adjust to a new job. For younger students who have not yet begun to work, this advice might only become relevant in later years. But for older students who may in fact already be working while doing their studies part-time, this will likely prove to be very valuable.

We’ll also offer some advice on how to deal with change and conflict in the workplace, look at the different ways of reacting to conflict and offer practical tips on how to handle conflict.

 

Dealing with change at work

The work environment is a dynamic thing that is forever changing. To stay relevant and keep up with the competition, companies need to implement change from time to time.

For you, as an employee, this could mean changes to the role you fulfil at the company, the people you work with or the technology that you use every day. Being able to comfortably deal with and adapt to changes will make you more of an asset to the business, as well as your own life easier.

Here are 11 tips for dealing with change at work:

  1. Be honest about your concerns
  2. Practice positive thinking
  3. Communicate with your superior frequently
  4. Re-evaluate your job and your place within the company
  5. Ask questions frequently
  6. Take a skills course
  7. Confide in family and friends for support
  8. Arrive to work earlier than you normally do to give more time to settle into the changes
  9. Help your coworkers adapt to changes
  10. Take a personal day when needed
  11. Remember that all change becomes routine with time

 

Working remotely

One massive work change that many have had to adjust to is remote working. Even though lockdown restrictions have eased, there are now far more remote workers than ever before.

Being a remote worker can be isolating. While it is certainly a perk to be able to work in your slippers and skip the occasional shower and shave, people who work remotely face their own challenges. Among the common problems plaguing remote workers is a lack of social interaction in the workplace, easy distractions and difficulty separating work from your personal life.

It is important to maintain a social support network, eat properly and get enough exercise to look after your mental and physical health. Creating a schedule that you stick to will also help keep you focused while you work. A work plan will also help you to properly relax when you aren’t working.

 

Conflict in the workplace:

Conflict occurs whenever there is a struggle between at least two parties who have seemingly incompatible goals, with one party clocking the aspirations of the other. These differences of opinion, values or norms can arise between two individuals, within a team of individuals or within an organisation.

Conflict is unavoidable, but rather than trying to avoid it, it can be helpful to view it in a more positive way. On the plus side, conflict can provide healthy chances for learning and growth. On the downside, conflict is one of the worst causes of stress in the workplace

 

Positive aspects of conflict:

  • It allows people to voice their concerns/feelings.
  • It can bring about good change.
  • It is a survival strategy.
  • Conflict can strengthen relationships (learn about others and yourself).
  • There is a sense of achievement when conflict is resolved.

 

Negative aspects of conflict:

  • There is a personal attack, blaming or judging.
  • It leaves scars (hurts the other emotionally or mentally).
  • It can become the only way to communicate one’s needs.

 

How to handle conflict:

Dealing with conflict at work does not have to be ugly. Approaching the conflict in a reasoned and calm manner will make things easier. Here are five steps to help you navigate yourself towards a win-win solution:

  • Define the conflict situation together and listen to the other person’s point of view.
  • Exchange reasons for your positions and communicate clearly.
  • Understand the other person’s perspective.
  • Find options for mutual gain and areas of agreement.
  • Reaching an agreement that is fair to all, ideally, create a ‘win-win’ situation

 

Ways of reacting to conflict:

We all react differently to conflict situations. Our reactions are influenced by several factors, such as the personalities involved, the situation and the stress level the parties are under. Better understanding these different reactions will help you to better deal with conflict situations. Understanding this can also help to distance oneself emotionally and not take things personally. Here are some different approaches to conflict management in the workplace.

Smoothing:

Smoothing is when you give up you own personal goals in order to keep the relationship at the highest possible level. This is appropriate when the goal is not as important as the relationship.

Negotiating:

The aim of negotiation is for both parties to reach the best outcome. It allows for the relationship to remain on a good level. Negotiation is a good approach when the goal and the relationship are both of importance. By reaching agreement, both parties can be satisfied and tension is resolved..

Compromising:

Compromise is a bit of a mix of the two above approaches. It is appropriate when both the goal and the relationship are moderately important. By compromising on part of the goal, you are still able to achieve some of it while also maintaining a good relationship.

Withdrawing:

This is when you give up on both the goal and the relationship, choosing to instead avoid both the person and the issue. This isn’t always the best approach in business, but there are cases where it is appropriate, such as dealing with a hostile stranger. It can also be a good temporary approach to allow you time to think about the situation. If you are feeling angry or upset, then withdrawing can allow you the time you need to regain control of your feelings before reengaging constructively.

Forcing:

Forcing is when someone tries to achieve their goals at all costs. This applies when the goal is far more important than the relationship. This can also occur when the two parties are at different levels of authority, such as a senior manager forcing a junior employee to do a task they do not want to. The forcing approach must be handled with care as it is likely to hurt the relationship.

 

Wits resources and further reading:

Wits CCDU has compiled some useful guides if you would like to read further about conflict management.

Wits CCDU has also put together a series of articles on the topic of building your resilience so that you are better able to cope with conflict and change in your life. These articles contain useful advice that goes well beyond the workplace, but can be applied to many aspects of your work life.

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